The Applied Microscopy and Digital Image Analysis Laboratory (LMA) of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) is located at the Madrid School of Mines and integrated into the RedLab (Laboratory network of the Madrid Region). The LMA is fully equipped with advanced systems in the fields of Optical microscopy (both transmitted and reflected), Petrography, Mineragraphy, Image Analysis and Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry. Research in the fields of rocks and minerals, metallic ores and aggregates is carried out in the LMA along with the development of applications to address issues related to geology, ore genesis, metallogeny, mining exploration, geometallurgy and its environmental implications, all in the frame of a wide variety of research projects with public and/or private foundation. PhD thesis and research, master thesis and degree final projects are frequently carried out in the LMA. Currently, a system is being developed for the automated identification and characterisation of ore minerals for industrial and research applications. On the other hand, its collaboration with the UPM Mineral Resources Research Group (GIRMI-UPM) allows for a quick access to other laboratories facilities and equipments and to international networks collaborating with GIRMI-UPM, such as IGME (Geological Survey of Spain) or DESIR network (formed by 22 European and American institutions).

Staff

In the LMA a team of staff and collaborators from the UPM Geological Engineering Department works in close collaboration with visitant researchers coming from European and American Universities (Germany, Belgium, Argentina, Brazil, Peru, etc.), along with research fellows, PhD students and internship students, selected among the School of Mines students or students granted by international institutions.

Current responsibilities in the LMA are coordination and direction by R. Castroviejo, maintenance by L. Sánchez, mining industry relationships by F. Vázquez and J.A. Espí, ore microscopy by C. Brea, and development of industrial applications and process mineralogy by L. Pérez-Barnuevo.

Facilities and instrumentation

The LMA is integrated into the UPM Geological Engineering Department and it is located at the Madrid School of Mines. This location endows access to other existing facilities, such as the Sample preparation Laboratory and the Central Laboratory, equipped with XDR, SEM and other equipments. The LMA is equipped with the usual instrumentation found in geological materials laboratories (sample preparation, transmitted and reflected microscopy, stereomicroscopy, etc.), along with specific techniques, such as Fluid Inclusion petrography and microthermometry applied to ore genesis and exploration / characterisation of ore deposits. In collaboration with AITEMIN, a patented methodology has been developed for the measurement of specular reflectance spectra on polished samples of rocks and minerals. This technology allows for the automated identification and characterisation of minerals using optical microscopy and provides information about modal composition, liberation and textures of ore minerals.

  • Motorized microscope Leica DM6000M coupled with a monochromatic filter wheel and B/W digital video camera for the acquisition of spectral measurements in VNIR (350 – 1000 nm) using digitalized images.
  • Filter wheel DTA-RPFmax coupled to the motorized microscope.
  • Spectral Microphotometer (H.J. Bernhardt / Hamamatsu MiniSp TM-VSIR/NIR Type NºC10083CA, on Leitz Orthoplan microscope), for reflectance spectra determination in visible, UV and near IR realms.
  • Certified reflectance standards Ocean Optics Stan SSH & SSL (from 250 to 2500 nm). In addition, specially designed standards (Pt, CSi).
  • Polarized microscope Leica DMRXP, (T+R) with tri-ocular head, air and oil objectives, adaptable to image analysis..
  • Five research microscopes T/R pol: Leica Laborlux, Olympus BX 40 and 41, Leica DMLP y Leica DM 2500.
  • Stereomicroscope zoom Wild MZ6, wide magnification range; T/R Optional.
  • Digital Image Analysis equipment Leica Q500MC.
  • Digital image analysis software Aphelion 3.4.
  • Research digital cameras adaptable to microscope and able to be connected to computer to register digital images:
  • B/W Basler Scout scA1400-17fm
  • Colour 3CCD, SONY XC-003P
  • Digital Colour Leica LAS 3.8 camera
  • Digital camera Nikon Coolpix 4500 and digital video camera coupled to printer.
  • Complete system for petrography and Fluid Inclusions Microtehrmometry with Leica Laborlux microscope, Heater stage FluidInc / modifiedUSGSsystem, system for the preparation of thin/polished and screen with automated system for video printing.

Techniques and services

Fields of research covered by the LMA are those related to mineral resources, for fundamental and applied research. Direct applications are mining exploration, ore deposits modelling, ore genesis, ore mineralogy, process mineralogy and geometallurgy. Additionally, particular applications can be developed for their use in other fields, such as material science, metallurgy, geotechnics or environment.

  • Microscopic characterisation of materials, rocks and ores by transmitted and reflected light, providing quantitative data about optical, morphological, granulometric and industrial parameters by means of digital image analysis. This application especially contributes to sustainability in the mining industry, since it is not only useful for improving the performance of mineral concentration processes, but also for detecting and controlling the presence of harmful substances, such as pyrite in coal or penalty elements in dumps.
  • Works applied to mining exploration activities.
  • Ore genesis, including petrography and microthermometry of fluid inclusions. Current issues approached by mining investigations and metallogeny, such as ore genesis, ore deposit modelling and mining exploration are usual tasks in the LMA, frequently performed in the frame of PhD thesis, master thesis or projects. For this purposes, several techniques are available, such as Fluid Inclusion petrography and microthermometry, ore microscopy, geochemistry, XRD, stereomicroscopy, digital image analysis, etc. When needed, external facilities are used for isotopic geochemistry, geochronology, electron microprobe, Raman spectroscopy, etc., thanks to the collaborative relationships with several associated research groups and laboratories.
  • Applied mineralogy and petrology to different fields, specially Mineral Resources.
  • Coal Petrography. In collaboration with CSIC (Coal Institute, Oviedo), coal petrography techniques are applied to give support to the Spanish government for the control of coal commercial circuits by characterizing the origin deposits.
  • Solution for minerallurgical problems and geometallurgical characterization of minerals by digital image analysis. Geometallurgy has emerged in the last decades fuelled by the realization of the great influence that geological and mineralogical parameters have in the performance of mineral concentration processes. The application of the above referred techniques for the automated identification and quantitative characterization of ores provides relevant information, sometimes essential for the success of the process, but frequently ignored due to the lack of appropriate tools or the difficulty of its acquisition by manual methods.

Research and applications

In the Applied Microscopy Laboratory, works for the mining industry are carried out to make available information useful for the optimization of mineral concentration processes performance. Ore concentrates are analyzed by means of a methodology that allows for a qualitative and quantitative characterisation of samples to provide mineralogical data, such as modal analysis, grain size and liberation.
Some of the works carried out recently are listed below:

  • Copper concentration circuit analysis from the characterization of concentrates. NevesCorvo, Portugal (2011).
  • Niquel-Copper concentration ciruit analysis from the mineralogical characterization of concentrates. Aguablanca, Badajoz, España. (2010).
  • Characterization of liberation in a Lead-Zinc aggregate. Siberia (2010).
  • Morphological and mineralogical characterization of Zinc concentrates. Buenaventura, Perú. (2009).
  • Modal analysis of Wolfram concentrates. Pasto Bueno, Ancash, Perú. (2008).

Projects

Last R+D Projetcts

  • Caracterización automatizada de menas metálicas mediante visión artificial (CAMEVA). (UPM, AITEMIN, Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Alemania), ULiège, Bélgica).
  • Sistema experto para la identificación y cuantificación automatizadas de minerales de interés industrial (menas) _SEICAMÍN. (UPM, AITEMIN, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Alemnaia), ULiège, Bélgica).
  • Análisis automatizado de las fases sulfuradas contenidas en carbones para la mejora de su utilización industrial y la protección del medio ambiente” Proyecto de Investigación FIENER (Fomento de Ingeniería Energética, FGP/UPM). (UPM, CIEMAT e Industria ,minas de Carbón)
  • Análisis para la caracterización petrográfica de carbones de diversas minas de Asturias. (UPM , Geoprin y Ruhr_Universitaet Bochum, Alemania).
  • Development of a methodology for detecting deep metal ore deposits through physico-chemical analysis of fluids in shallow boreholes”. (UPM,  BRGM, Bureau  de Recherches Geologiques et Minières, Orleans, Francia, y otras).
  • Innovative geothermal methodology to detect deep blind polymetallic orebodies”. (UPM,  BRGM , Bureau  de Recherches Geologiques et Minières, Orleans, Francia, y otras).

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International cooperation for sustainable development

At the LMA particular attention is paid to researchers in training, and international cooperation for sustainable development is especially supported. The LMA hosts students and researchers from Iberoamerica to develop their thesis in the frame of several programmes and networks (European programmes ALFA I and II; CYTED and AECI Programmes of the Spanish Ministry of External Affairs, OEI Centre of High-level University Studies, ALEMYMA, RIMEP and DESIR networks, etc.), in which more than 30 institutions from Europe and America collaborate, usually coordinated by the Mineral Resources research group. This joint participation involves a continuous contribution to Iberoamerican cooperation and, at the same time, a very enriching scientific return to the LMA.

  • Aprovechamiento Sostenible de los Recursos Minerales. (Máster Internacional, UE / Red DESIR).
  • Mejoras de las condiciones de explotación y valoración del yacimiento de larimar en la Sierra de Barohuco (Rep. Dominicana) – Proyecto Piloto. (UPM, UE_ONFED, SYSMIN II).
  • Reconocimiento y caracterización de complejos peridotíticos preandinos en el Perú. (UPM, INGEMMET, IGM-Porto).
  • Investigación del Complejo Ultramáfico de Tapo y de su Potencial como Metalotecto de Cr, Ni, Cu, Au y EGP (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os).(UPM, UNI, REPSA, INGEMMET, IGM).
  • Investigación minera de yacimientos minerales andinos. Mina Caudalosa (Huancavelica, Perú). (UPM, Univ. Nal. Mayor de San Marcos de Lima, UNMSM, Cía. Minera Caudalosa SAC).
  • Desarrollo de guías de exploración por metales preciosos en Complejos Ofiolíticos”. Programa CYTED: Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo (Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Madrid).
  • ALEMYMA-2: Metales Preciosos. Región Andina y Cuba. (UE / Red ALEMYMA).

PhD Theses

García del Amo, Mª.D. (2000) Investigación y Control Mineralógico de la reacción árido-álcali en áridos para hormigón. Sobresaliente cum laude.

Demoustier, A. (2002) Estudio del sistema hidrotermal responsable de la génesis de las mineralizaciones epitermales del Cabo de Gata (Almería). Sobresaliente cum laude.

Gavrilenko, E. (2003). Esmeraldas de los Urales (Rusia): Condiciones de formación y caracterización comparativa con las esmeraldas de otros orígenes. Sobresaliente cum laude.

Ríos Carranza, A. (2004). Estudio del Metalotecto Lancones y su potencial por yacimientos vulcanogénicos de sulfuros masivos (VMS), Piura (Perú). Sobresaliente cum laude

Berrezueta, E. (2004). Caracterización de menas mediante Análisis Digital de Imagen: Investigación y diseño de un sistema experto aplicable a problemas mineros. Sobresaliente cum laude.

Pérez Barnuevo, Laura (2014). Caracterización automatizada de texturas de mena mediante Análisis Digital de Imagen para su aplicación geometalúrgica.

Brea, C. (En curso). Modelo metalogenético de evolución para el yacimiento “Farallón Negro”, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina.

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Master Theses

Brea, C. (2009). Aplicación del análisis multiespectral al reconocimiento automatizado de menas con microscopio de reflexión. Director: Ricardo Castroviejo.

Yparraguirre, A. (2008). Minerología e interpretación genética de la Veta Rublo – Mina Chonta, Huachocolpa Huancavelica – Perú. Director: Ricardo Castroviejo.

Sarmiento, J.C. (2008). Menas auríferas epitermales en Chipmo y Poracota, Arequipa – Perú. Inclusiones fluidas e isótopos de Plomo y Estroncio, aplicaciones para la exploración. Director: Ricardo Castroviejo.

Gamarra, J. (2008). Caracterización, mineralización y geoquímica de la veta Pallancata –aplicaciones a la exploración minera Parinacochas – Ayacucho – Perú. Director: Ricardo Castroviejo.

Pérez Banuevo, L. (2008). Ensayo metodológico para la caracterización automatizada de menas metálicas mediante análisis digital de imagen. Aplicación geometalúrgica.

Acosta, J. (2007) Las inclusiones fluidas como guías de exploración en depósitos de minerales. Ejemplo: el pórfido de Cobre Lara Ayacucho – Perú.

Pérez-Puig Obieta, C.R. (2008). Investigación de los controles geológicos en la mineralización de Veta Esperanza (Huachocolpa, Perú).

Coz, E. (2002). Proyecto de cuantificación automatizada del contenido de sulfuros en carbones por Análisis Digital de Imagen, como ayuda para la previsión y corrección del Impacto Ambiental.

Múzquiz, C. (1997). Aplicación del Análisis Digital de Imagen a la caracterización cualitativa y cuantitativa de menas sulfuradas de la Faja Pirítica Ibérica: Masa Valverde.

Recent publications

Research

Pérez-Barnuevo L, Pirard E, Castroviejo R. (2013). Automatic characterisation of intergrowth textures in mineral particles. A case study. Minerals Engineering, Vol. 52, pp. 136-142, Elsevier, Amsterdam, ISSN 0892-6875. DOI:http://dx.doi.org./10.1016/j.mineng.2013.05.001

Gamarra J, Castroviejo R, Bernhardt HJ. (2013). Preliminary mineralogy and ore petrology of the intermediate-sulfidation  Pallancata Deposit, Ayacucho, Peru. Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 51, pp. 67-91, Mineralogical Assoc. Canada, Ottawa, ISSN 0008-4476. DOI: 10.3747/canmin.51.1.67

Pérez-Barnuevo L, Pirard E, Castroviejo R. (2012). Textural descriptors for multiphasic ore particles. Image Analysis and Stereology, Vol. 31, pp. 175-184, Ljubljana (Eslovenia), ISSN 1580-3139. EISSN 1854-5165.

Tassinari C, Castroviejo R, Rodrigues JF, Acosta J, Pereira E. (2011). A neoproterozoic age for the chromitite and gabbro of the Tapo ultramafic Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Central Peru and its tectonic implications. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 32, pp. 429-437, Elsevier, Amsterdam, ISSN: 0895-9811. DOI: 10.1016/.jsames.2011.03.008

Castroviejo R, Quesada C, Soler M. (2011). Título: Post-depositional tectonic modifications of VMS deposits in Iberia and its economic significance. Mineralium Deposita, vol. 46, pp. 615-637, Springer, Heidelberg, ISSN: 0026-4598.

Pérez-Barnuevo L, Brea C, Castroviejo R. (2010). Innovación en las técnicas de microscopía óptica aplicadas a la industria minera. In: Loredo J. (ed.) Nuevos retos en la prospección e investigación de los recursos minerales. Libro homenaje al Prof. Jesús García Iglesias, pp. 521-562. ISBN978-84-614-4631-5

Castroviejo R, Berrezueta E. (2009).Reconocimiento automatizado de menas metálicas mediante análisis digital de imagen: Un apoyo al proceso mineralúrgico. II: criterios metalogenéticos discriminantes. Rev. Metal. Madrid, Vol. 45 (6), pp. 439-456, CSIC, Madrid.

Berrezueta E, Castroviejo R. (2007). Reconocimiento automatizado de menas metálicas mediante análisis digital de imagen: Un apoyo al proceso mineralúrgico. I: Ensayo metodológico. Rev. Metal. Madrid Vol. 43 (4), pp. 294 – 309. CSIC. Madrid.

Gavrilenko EV, Calvo Pérez B, Castroviejo R, García del Amo D. (2006).Emeralds from the Delbegetey deposit (Kazakhstan): mineralogical characteristics and fluid-inclusion study. Mineralogical Magazine. Vol. 70 (2) , pp. 159 – 173. United Kingdom.

Castroviejo R, Moreno T. Prichard H, Fallick AE. (2004). Metalogenia de las ofiolitas de Galicia y unidades asociadas (NW del Macizo Ibérico, España) In: Pereira E.S., Castroviejo R., Ortiz F. eds 2004, Complejos Ofiolíticos en IBEROAMÉRICA: Guías de Prospección para Metales Preciosos, Proyecto XIII-1 CYTED, Madrid, 379 p.

Coz E, Castroviejo R, Bonilla D. & García Frutos J. (2003). Quantitative determination of modal content and morphological properties of coal sulphides by digital image analysis as a tool to check their flotation behaviour. Fuel, Vol. 82, pp. 1921 -1929. Ámsterdam (Elsevier).

Castroviejo R, Berrezueta E y Lastra R. (2002). Microscopic digital image analyses of gold ores. A critical test of methodology, comparing reflected light and electron microscopy. Minerals & Metallurgical Processing Journal. Vol. 19, nº 2, pp. 102-110. Madrid.

Castroviejo, R. (1999). El Análisis Digital de Imagen en Mineralogía: ¿Útil o Quimera? Una crítica metodológica. Bol. Soc. Esp. Mineralogía, 22 A, pp. 31-32

Demoustier A, Castroviejo R,  Charlet JM. (1998). Clasificación textural del  cuarzo epitermal (Au-Ag) de relleno filoniano del área volcánica de Cabo de Gata, Almería. Bol. Geol. y Minero. Vol. 109-5 y 6,pp. 449- 468. Madrid.

Castroviejo R. (1990). Gold Ores Related to Shear Zones, West Santa Comba‑Fervenza Area (Galicia, NW Spain): A Mineralogical Study. Mineralium Deposita. Vol. 25a, pp. 42-52, Heidelberg (Springer‑Verlag).

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Berrezueta E, Castroviejo R, Pantoja F, Álvarez R. (2002). Estudio Mineralógico y cuantificación por Análisis Digital de Imagen de las menas auríferas de Nariño (Colombia). Aplicación a la Mejora del Proceso Mineralúrgico. Bol. Geol. y Minero. Vol. 113 (4), pp. 369-379. Madrid.

Congresses, symposia and scientific meetings

Research

Pérez-Barnuevo L, Castroviejo R, Pirard E. (2013). New perspectives on quantitative textural analysis. In Proc. The Second AusIMM International Geometallurgy Conference, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, 30 septiembre – 2 octubre, pp. 191-196.

Pérez-Barnuevo L, Pirard E, Castroviejo R. (2012). Automated textural analysis of the Kansanshi copper ore. Process Mineralogy Conference, 7-9 noviembre, Ciudad del Cabo, Sudáfrica.

Pérez-Barnuevo L, Pirard E, Castroviejo R. (2012). New developments for automated texture analysis applied to Geometallurgy. XVI Congreso Peruano de Geología & SEG 2012 Conference, 23-26 septiembre, Lima (Perú).

Pérez-Barnuevo L, Pirard E. (2011). Textural Descriptors for Multiphasic Ore Particles. 13th International Congress for Stereology. Beijing (China). Oct-2011.

Castroviejo R, Carrascal R, Chirif H, Rodrigues JF, Acosta J, Bernhardt HJ (2010) Metalogenia asociada a los segmentos ofiolíticos de la Cordillera Oriental del Perú Central. Simposio S3_Bloques Litosféricos de la Cadena Andina. XV Congr Peruano de Geología. Cusco, 27/09 a 01/10/2010

Castroviejo R, Macharé J, Castro P, Pereira E, Rodrigues JF, Tassinari CG, Willner A, Acosta J (2010) Significado de las ofiolitas neoproterozoicas en la Cordillera Oriental del Perú. Simposio S3_Bloques Litosféricos de la Cadena Andina. XV Congr Peruano de Geología. Cusco, 27/09 a 01/10/2010

Rodrigues JF,  Acosta J,  Castroviejo R,  Quispe J , Romero D, Uribe R, Campián M (2010) Geología y estructura de las ultramafitas de Tapo y Acobamba (Tarma, Perú). Removilización tectónica andina de un segmento ofiolítico pre-andino. Simposio S3_Bloques Litosféricos de la Cadena Andina. XV Congr Peruano de Geología. Cusco, 27/09 a 01/10/2010

Rodrigues JF, Acosta J, Macharé J, Pereira E, Castroviejo R (2010) Evidencias estructurales de aloctonía de los cuerpos ultramáficos y máficos de la Cordillera Oriental del Perú en la Región de Huánuco. Simposio S3_Bloques Litosféricos de la Cadena Andina. XV Congr Peruano de Geología. Cusco, 27/09 a 01/10/2010

Tassinari CG, Castroviejo R, Rodrigues JF, Acosta J, Pereira E (2010) Neoproterozoic ultramafic and mafic magmatism in the Eastern Cordillera of the central peruvian Andes: the Tapo Massif. Simposio S3_Bloques Litosféricos de la Cadena Andina. XV Congr Peruano de Geología. Cusco, 27/09 a 01/10/2010

Willner A, Castroviejo R, Rodrigues JF, Acosta J, Rivera M (2010)  High pressure metamorphic conditions in garnet amphibolite from a collisional shear zone related to the Tapo ultramafic body, Eastern Cordillera of Central Peru. Simposio S3_Bloques Litosféricos de la Cadena Andina. XV Congr Peruano de Geología. Cusco, 27/09 a 01/10/2010

Castroviejo, R., Brea, C., Samper, J. (2010). New data on the specular reflectance of ores (VNIR: 400 – 1000nm) and their significance for ore microscopy. IMA2010, 20th Internat. Mineralogical Association Congress, Budapest, 2010 (submitted).

Castroviejo R., Catalina J.C., Bernhardt H.J., Pirard E., Segundo F.,  Brea C., Pérez-Barnuevo L. (2010). A fully automated methodology for multispectral ore microscopy. IMA2010, 20th Internat. Mineralogical Association Congress, Budapest, 2010 (submitted).

Pérez-Barnuevo, L., Castroviejo, R., Espí, J.A. (2010). A comparative study of quantitative methods in ore microscopy: digital image analysis vs. point counter device. IMA2010, 20th Internat. Mineralogical Association Congress, Budapest, 2010 (submitted).

Pérez-Puig C.R., Castroviejo R. (2009). Geothermometry, ore geochemistry and fluid flow in the Esperanza Vein, Huachocolpa District (Huancavelica, Peru). ECROFI- XX Meeting, European Current Research on Fluid Inclusions. Universidad de Granada, España, 23-25 septiembre 2009.

Brea C., Castroviejo R., Catalina J.C., Segundo F. (2009). Identificación automatizada de minerales de mena con microscopio de reflexión: uso de imágenes multiespectrales. SEM 2009 – XXIX Reunión Científica de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía. MACLA. Revista de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía. Páginas 41-42. ISSN: 1885-7264. Salamanca, 10092009.

Pérez-Barnuevo L., Castroviejo R., Berrezueta E. (2009). Análisis Digital de Imágenes RGB aplicado a la Geometalurgia. Puesta a punto del equipo y su potencial frente a métodos tradicionales. SEM 2009 – XXIX Reunión Científica de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía. MACLA. Revista de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía. Páginas 143-144. ISSN: 1885-7264. Salamanca, 10092009.

Castroviejo R., Brea C., Pérez-Barnuevo L., Catalina J.C., Segundo F., Bernhardt H.J., Pirard E. (2009).Using computer vision for microscopic identification of ores with reflected light: preliminary results. 10th biennial SGA Meeting, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits. Smart Science for exploration and Mining, Williams et al., eds. (2009). Proceedings of the 10th biennial SGA Meeting. Vol 2. Páginas 682 a 684. ISSN: 9780980558685. Townsville, Australia, 17 a 20 agosto 2009

Pérez-Barnuevo L., Castroviejo R., Berrezueta E. (2008). Ensayo metodológico para optimizar la caracterización mineralógica de menas metálicas. Estudio de un caso de aplicación geometalúrgica. XIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Geología. Sesión R5. Lima, Perú. 29 septiembre – 3 octubre 2008.

Castroviejo R., Catalina J.C., Bernhardt H.J., Espí J.A., Pirard E., Samper J., Brea C., Segundo F., Locutura J., Pérez-Barnuevo L., Sánchez L., Fidalgo A. (2008). Caracterización y cuantificación automatizadas de menas metálicas mediante visión artificial: Proyecto CAMEVA. XIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Geología, Sesión R8. Lima, Perú. 29 septiembre – 3 octubre 2008

Pirard E., Bernhardt H.J, Catalina J.C., Brea C., Segundo F., Castroviejo R. (2008). From Spectrophotometry to multispectral Imaging of ore minerals in visible and near infrared (VNIR) microscopy. 9th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (IMA/CAM). Proc. 9th IMA/CAM Congress, pp. 1-6 (ISBN: 978 1 920806 86 6). Brisbane, QLD. Australia. 8-10 septiembre 2008.

Castroviejo R., Yparraguirre J.A., Chacón E. (2007). Lithogeochemistry and fluid flow in the epithermal Veta Rublo base metal-silver deposit, Chonta Mine (Huancavelica, Perú). 23rd International Applied Geochemistry Symposium. IAGS. Oviedo (España), 14 al 19 junio 2007.

Castroviejo R., Yparraguirre J.A., Canepa C. (2006). Extensive boiling as a precipitation mechanism for precious and base metal ores, Bienaventurada Mine, Huancavelica, Perú. Session C3 (22.08.06) 12th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium 2006. Understanding the genesis of ore deposits to meet the demands of the 21st century. IAGOD (Int. Assoc.Genesis of Ore Deposits). Moscú. 21 al 24 agosto 2006.

Castroviejo R., Tassinari C., Proenza J. (2006). New data on the ophiolitic VMS deposits of Moeche (Cabo Ortegal Complex, NW Spain). Session 12 (23.08.06). 12th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium 2006. Understanding the genesis of ore deposits to meet the demands of the 21st century. IAGOD (Int. Assoc.Genesis of Ore Deposits). Moscú. 21 al 24 agosto 2006.

Berrezueta E., Castroviejo R., Ortiz F., Domínguez M.J., Ramos J.M. (2005) Aplicación del análisis de imagen a la caracterización de la Marmatita l.t. (Marmato, Colombia). Res. XXV Reunion SEM, Alicante, 4-7 julio 2005. SEM Macla, Nº 3, p. 47-50.

Castroviejo R. (2004). Gold in Ophiolites. 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence. Proceedings 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy. Abstract Vol. Part I, pp 47-48. (2004). Florencia, Italia. 21 de agosto 2004.

Coz E., Castroviejo R., Bonilla D. & García Frutos F.J. (2002). Quantitative determination of modal content and morphological properties of coal sulphides by Digital Image Processing. 4th UK meeting on Coal Research and its Applications. Proceedings. 16 –18 de  septiembre 2002.

Castroviejo R. (2002). Genesis and metamorphism of Cyprus-type massive sulphide deposits during hercyninan collision, Cabo Ortegal Complex, NW Iberian Massif  (Spain). 11th Quadrennial IAGOD Symp. and Geocongress 2002, Windhoek, Namibia. Abs. In “Conference Progr. 11th Quadrennial IAGOD Symp. and Geocongress 2002, Windhoek, Namibia”, p.22.  Extended Abs. Ibid. CD edition. 22-26 de julio  2002.

Castroviejo, R., Chacón, E., Múzquiz, C. y Tarquini S. (1999) (a). A preliminary Image Analysis characterization of massive sulphide ores from the SW Iberian Pyrite Belt (Spain). Geovision 99, Int. Symp. on Imaging Appl. in Geology, Univ. Liège, Belgium, Pag 37-40.

Castroviejo, R., López, A., Múzquiz, C. y Pirard, E. (1999) (b). Modal Image Analysis of metallic sulphide ores from the SW Iberian Pirite Belt (Spain). Geovision 99, Int. Symp. on Imaging Appl. in Geology, Univ. Liège, Belgium, Pag 41-44.

Sustainable development

Espí J.A., Castroviejo R, Berrezueta E., Coullant J.L, Locutura J., Moreno S., Samper J., Sánchez L., Vázquez F.(2006). Improved ore processing assessed by digital image analysis of the ores: a key to the sustainable development of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. 12th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium 2006. Understanding the genesis of ore deposits to meet the demands of the 21st century.  IAGOD (Int. Assoc.Genesis of Ore Deposits).

Berrezueta E., Castroviejo R. (2004). A low cost and widely applicable methodology of digital imagen analysis of ores for mineral and envirommental engineering. 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence. Proceedings 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy. Abstract Vol. Part I, pp 533-534. (2004). 23 de agosto 2004.